23.05.2018 | 09:05
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Slovensko, Česká republika, Evropská unie a zemědělství

Agrární sektor je významnou, nikoliv však jedinou součástí národního hospodářství obou států. Jeho vývoj ovlivňuje celostátní ukazatele a současně je těmito ukazateli (často výrazně) ovlivňován.

Některé ukazatele vývoje společnosti a národního hospodářství uvádí tab. 1. Je z ní např. zřejmé, že mezi roky 1991 a 2017 se v obou státech vyvíjel počet obyvatel obdobně (+3,0 a +2,6 %), výrazněji rostly počty pracovníků celkem a v průmyslu na Slovensku (+11,4 a +31,9 %) než v ČR (+3,2 a +9,1 %), při shodném poklesu v obou státech od roku 1992 (o 8,9 a 8,8 %) bylo v roce 2017 dosaženo nižší inflace ve SK (1,3 %) než v ČR (2,5 %). Inflace v obou státech v roce 1993 vyšší než 20 % se během tří let výrazně snížila (graf 1), přičemž v období 1993 až 2017 byla mírně nižší v ČR (4,4 %) než ve SK (5,7 %). V únoru 2018 se inflace v ČR snížila na 1,8 % (ČSÚ 2018) a na SK dosáhla podle v lednu 2018 2,6 % (Štatický úrad SR, 2018).

Často hodnoceným a srovnávaným ukazatelem je míra nezaměstnanosti. Mezi roky 1992 a 2017 se snížila v ČR ze 4,1 na 2,9 % (od listopadu 2017 do února 2017 je na úrovni 2,4 %) a na Slovensku z 11,8 na 5,9 %. Pozoruhodný je pokles nezaměstnanosti na Slovensku v letech 2004 až 2017 o 8,8 % (koncem ledna 2018 klesla na 5,9 %).

S úspěšností vývoje národního hospodářství úzce souvisí výše hrubé domácí produkce (HDP). Její meziroční kolísání  poukazuje na skutečnost, že se jedná o ukazatel citlivě reagující na roční změny výsledků všech resortů, a že trend jeho vývoje je v obou státech shodný. Průměr meziročního přírůstku HDP v období 1994 až 1918 dosáhl na Slovensku 4,2 %, v ČR byl o 1,5 % nižší (2,7 %). Mezi roky 1992 a 2017 se HDP na obyvatele zvýšila v obou státech více než desetkrát, přičemž v letech 1992, 2004 a 2017 byla HDP v ČR přibližně o 15, 38 a 16 % vyšší než na Slovensku. Ve státech EU se výše HDP často vyjadřuje jako podíl z průměru HDP na obyvatele všech států unie. V roce 2016 kolísal tento podíl mezi 49 % v Bulharsku a 258 % v Lucembursku, v ČR a na Slovensku dosáhl 88 a 77 % a mezi roky 2005 a 2016 se zvýšil v ČR o 11 % a na Slovensku o 17 %.

Pro obyvatele obou států jsou zřejmě významnější příjmy z pracovní činnosti a důchody po jejím ukončení než uváděné celostátní ukazatele. Z tab. 1 je zřejmé, že v letech 1991, 2004 a 2017 byly v ČR měsíční „pracovní“ příjmy zhruba o 0,7, 4,2 a 18,2 % a důchody o 13,6, 3,0 a 4,8 % vyšší než na Slovensku, přičemž od vstupu v roce 2009 do eurozóny roste ve SK příjem na pracovníka rychleji než v ČR. Podle Sociálnej poisťovni (2018) se za první dva měsíce roku 2018 zvýšil ve SK průměrný starobní důchod o 10,7 EUR (přibližně o 280 Kč).

  

Seznam použité literatury je k dispozici u autora příspěvku.

Příspěvek byl zpracován v rámci řešení projektu MZE-RO0718

Ing. Jindřich Kvapilík, DrSc.,

Výzkumný ústav živočišné výroby, v. v. i.

Praha

Celý článek autora najdete v NCH 6/2018

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